Have you double checked the IP of your hosting server is the same as the one entered into Cloudflare?
If you were using the GoDaddy DNS then if your servers IP changed, they’d update it for you automatically. As rare as that might be. But using Cloudflare, they aren’t able to change that for you, and they may not have notified you via email.
Does 522 error happen always, or sometimes, from time to time?
Before moving to Cloudflare, was your Website working over HTTPS connection?
Is GoDaddy providing you with an SSL certificate for your domain name including with the hosting or?
May I ask what SSL option have you got selected under the SSL/TLS tab at Cloudflare dashboard for your domain ( Flexible, Full, Full Strict … )?
Furthermore, do not skip below step and kindly re-check with your hosting provider and your firewall (for example if using UFW or iptables or Wordfence security plugin?) if Cloudflare is allowed to connect to your origin host to as follows in the below article:
Is your WordPresss admin configured to work over HTTPS (SSL)?
When I check via wp-json, can see the latest published articles from Sep 2021.
I am not aware what happened at WordPress database, if so, check the status of other posts (draft, private …). Or else, if you changed hosting, maybe something didn’t migrated well in terms of databse/keys.
I cannot find any caching related HTTP header, so the homepage/posts aren’t cached either and display the actual data from the database.
I’d suggest you to contact your hosting provider in terms of the missing WordPress content, if so.
Hopefully the content is not lost and can be returned from the backup.