Using Email routing to a gmail account, many emails don't get delivered to us

There have been issue throughout March and April with CF and Google’s Gmail. I would see a lot of emails getting “Delivery failed” in the Email routing dashboard, with the explanation that Gmail refused to receive them, due to the sender being blocked (aka Cloudflare’s IPs). Seems like this got solved, but for a couple of days now there are new issues:

Most emails would get forwarded to the Gmail with no issue, others will just end up with status “Error” and not much explanation as to why. Emails from real people using gmail.com, abv.bg and other clients too. We are not using Google Workspace, just a normal Gmail account with plenty of storage to it.

FYI: “Forwarded” emails have SPF, DKIM passed and DMARC “none”, although it’s set up. Emails with status “Error” have all SPF,DKIM,DMARC to “none” and there are no trace of the emails.

My question is - What’s going wrong? The issue is only with every 30th email or so and the email itself is unrecoverable, as it won’t get received to neither my Gmail or to the original address and the hosting’s mailbox, or is there a way to recover the message somehow?

TIA!