It looks like your site is generating many 404s and 508s for image files, but I see no clue that this is in any way related to Cloudflare. It seems to be an issue (or a few issues) you should investigate at the origin, perhaps by checking the config of your plugins.
For instance, there are a few JPG images that are being sent with a header
Content-Type: text/html. Others have the correct content-type header, but they result in 404s nevertheless. (When I click to Open Link in a New Tab, these images show normally)
Then it seems the browser re-fetches the 404 images, so they are not even missing from the page! I also see many images being loaded many times over. And you seem to have a Rate Limiting in place at the origin, which only adds to the problem as any attempt to refresh the page will result in further 508s.
Open your site with Developer Tools on (F12 on Chrome) and set it to filter IMG files, you’ll be able to see what I mean. Then inspect all your image optimization and caching plugins, to see if they are not conflicting with one another.