Poor cached image loading speed

I’ve got a site that uses Cloudflare CDN and the images are loaded quite slow despite it have cf-cache-status: HIT header. For example, 57kB image is loaded 1-1.2 sec. The majority of time is hangs in Waiting status, so the TTFB is very high. According to the image, it is not only my local problem:

Example url: https://www.kittychat.ai/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/4.png
Rocket loader is off.
Could you give me a hint what could be a problem?