New uploaded images need about 10 min to display in my website

After publishing new posts on my website the images not appear but after 10 min the images show correctly. My problem just with new uploaded images.

In your browser’s Dev Tools section for Network, what error is showing for those images?

It’s highly unlikely that the delay is with Cloudflare, as Cloudflare just delivers what’s on the server. If that image returns a 404, Cloudflare only caches a 404 result for 3 minutes. Not 10. If it’s in a Cache Everything rule, it will cache for 5 minutes.