Thats why the nice please :). I actually edited it and added the last paragraph, my apologies if you responded before I added it.
I havent come across that domain yet, but it really does not seem to be a partner setup (though, we do know nobody really knows how they work ) and the domain does not have any Cloudflare association except for these manually assigned A records.
Considering that Cloudflare does respond I am pretty sure it does go through Cloudflare, but how “legitimately” is another story. I would expect the domain to have a “moved” status and to be gone from Cloudflare soon.
Anyhow, there isnt anything Cloudflare can do in this case.