Load balancing - does it cache the HTML?

I’m trying to understand load balancing on Cloudflare. It sounds like we can have ‘mirror’ servers which help us serve the website, instead of putting all the burden on the original hosting server. Then I wonder how exactly does that work?

Do the mirror servers cache HTML and assets (images, css, js, etc…) so they can be served from the mirror servers directly? What about the post requests and AJAX requests, or any requests which require database queries? Do they still go through the original server?

If I have the server side code (e.g. PHP) to check user agent and that would generate different HTML based on the user agent, is it going to be a potential risk of using the load balancing (if it caches HTML)?

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