This behaviour is usually caused when you configure Cloudflare to cache responses, while also configuring your origin to vary the response depending on the type of browser making the first request. You are probably delivering webp images from your Origin for Chrome, but users on other browsers without webp support cannot render the webp images.
Either modify your caching behaviour, or don’t vary the response on the origin.
I had a brief look at your site, but kept getting redirected to advertisements for crypto-junk, with the advertisements made to look like legitimate articles from different news websites. When I saw my own website branding being abused in similar fashion I lost interest in looking any further.