Google is absolutely unable to see my domain's DNS records

My flow is the same for all of my domains, yet there is a single one that I cannot get to work.

I point all of my domains to external DNS server which is Cloudflare where I manage all of the records (A, MX for Google Workspace, TXT, CNAME etc).

I have some issues with ijgimperial.com where some people (not all) cannot send me e-mails. Google support told me there are no Name Servers specified. I’m absolutely confused because:

On the OVH it looks like any other of my domains:

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On the Cloudflare it has everything it needs to work in Google Workspace (Suite)

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and the Google Consultant said there are no DNS records to be found:

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Please give me at least a hint, whether the issue is on OVH, Cloudflare, Google or have I done something wrong and I’m missing a thing?

In terms of the website, it should point to a dummy static page I’ve temporarily made, but browser cannot resolve it as well.

I see two issues:

  1. The domain is using DNSSEC. This can’t be enabled when you’re changing name servers. It looks like it’s registered at OVH, so I suggest you disable DNSSEC over there and let it sit for a while.
  2. Those DNS records for your website don’t resolve. Again, this is probably caused by DNSSEC.