Cloudflare Image resize fails for specific URL

I have a cloudflare worker that takes image URLs from external domains and resizes them to be displayed on my website. The code for this can be seen below:

addEventListener('fetch', event => {
  event.respondWith(handleRequest(event.request))
})

const errNoUrl = "<h1>Not found</h1><p>Specify url= to query a url</p>"

function resizeUrl(width, height, url, fit="cover") {
  return `https://vinnauto.com/cdn-cgi/image/width=${width},length=${height},metadata=none,fit=${fit},quality=100,onerror=redirect/${url}`
}

/**
 * Fetch and log a request
 * @param {Request} request
 */
async function handleRequest(request) {
  const params = {}
  const url = new URL(request.url)
  const queryString = url.search.slice(1).split('&')

  queryString.forEach(item => {
    const kv = item.split('=')
    if (kv[0]) params[kv[0]] = kv[1] || true
    params[kv[0]] = decodeURIComponent(params[kv[0]])
  })

  if (!params["url"]) {
       return new Response(errNoUrl, { 
      status: 404, 
      headers: { "content-type": "text/html" }
    });
  }

  let image_exists = false;
  await fetch(params["url"]).then(function(response) {
    image_exists = response.status == 200;
    params["url"] = response.url; // URL obtained after redirects
  }).catch(() => image_exists = false)

  let response = image_exists ? 
    await fetch(resizeUrl(params["width"], params["height"], params["url"])) : 
    await fetch(resizeUrl(params["width"], params["height"], params["fallback"]));

  return response
}

I am having an issue with a specific image URL. The URL seems to work on the worker quick edit test browser but fails to work in a regular browser (returns 404 or Cloudflare’s ERROR 9404). I can’t seem to figure out if it is an issue with the Cloudflare worker or the browser/website. I don’t even know where to begin looking into this issue on my own so I hope someone on here can lend a hand.

The URL that doesn’t work is https://images.vinnauto.workers.dev/?fallback=https%3A%2F%2Fcdn.vinnauto.com%2Fassets%2Fimages%2Fcoming_soon.png&height=169&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcontent.homenetiol.com%2F640x480%2Fe6803f23df2c43eebc281807561604ac.jpg&width=322