I’m reaching for you because our hosting service customer support suggested checking with you the following issue, as they think it’s related to Cloudflare’s cache not clearing.
The same image loads perfectly in the default language and in another page translation.
The web hosting company said that after uncaching the site, the image displayed correctly. They also
tried a host file trick to bypass Cloudflare and the image loaded for them.
I did “purged everything” a couple of times, waited a few minutes but the issue still affects the English version of the page.
That’s why the hosting service customer support suggested reaching for you to further investigate the issue.
The website runs on WordPress 5.4.2, using Bridge theme and WP Bakery Page Builder plugin.
Thanks in advance for your help.