Altering dynamic and static content CDN's

Hello,

I’m trying to understand few things about Cloudflare’s cache mechanism.

https://www.cloudflare.com/learning/cdn/caching-static-and-dynamic-content/

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Cloudflare Workers, for example, are serverless JavaScript functions that run on the Cloudflare CDN. They can respond to a variety of events and inputs, including device type, time of day, user location, or data from third-party APIs. Based on these parameters, dynamic content can be generated and served to client devices, or static content can be altered, cached, or purged from the cache.
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In this article from the statement, it is stated that based on the location, time and date, etc. static content can be changed. I would like to know in detail about that and how does it work?